Development Theories Essay

Erik Erikson elaborated Freud's genital stage in adolescence, and added 3 stages of adulthood (William, 2011). The eight phases according to Mcleod are: Trust Versus Mistrust (birth - one particular year), Autonomy vs . Pity and Hesitation (2 - 3 years), Initiative versus Guilt (3 - five years), Sector (competence) or Inferiority (6 - doze years), Identification vs . Position Confusion (13 - 18 years), Intimacy vs . Seclusion (young adulthood), Generativity versus Stagnation (middle adulthood) and Ego Ethics vs . Despair (old age). I am going to talk about the initially two. In infancy, children learn to trust or/and doubtfulness people and environment. We still have family members I are uncomfortable being around mainly because they use to tickle me as a child. These days there is always a sense of mistrust after i am surrounding them. As toddlers, (18 months-3 years) are proud of self and pay attention to to face anxieties or low self confidence. This is the level where we gain muscle control and start potty training. In the event that our caregivers are extremely critical or perhaps impatient, or perhaps if that they demean each of our efforts, we develop emotions of pity and hesitation. After my own mum revealed me a handful of times how to go toilet, I would tell her I did not want her inside the toilet and i also could do it myself. This kind of gave me a feeling of autonomy and self-esteem. Intended for Erikson, psychosocial development entails certain crises which the individual must confront at each level.


McLeod, S. A. (2008).  Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Stages. Retrieved from

Crain, William (2011). Theories of Development: Principles and Applications (6th ed. ).

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